Free American Pogrom Annotated Bibliography Example

Published: 2021-06-18 05:10:18
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Barnes, Harper. Never been a time: the 1917 race riot that sparked the civil rights movement. New York: Walker & Co., 2008. Print. This is Harper Barnes explanations of the 1917’s happenings in East St. Louis involving black and white racial interactions that saw a lot of bloodshed and discrimination for the black community. It explains the factors that fuelled for the civil rights movement. It accounts for the migration of the black population to the North in search of better opportunities and the responses from the whites through racial confrontations involving killings, destruction of property. It has also explained the influence of the industries and companies in attracting the black populations after white laborers striked. It was because of these in human activities that forced the blacks to riot across St. Louis Illinois in an attempt to fight back and resist brutality and the rampant killings.
Capeci, Dominic J.. "American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics (review)." American Studies 50.3-4 (2009): 166-166. Print. This is an article that reviews Charles Lumpkins account of the East St. Louis riots in 1917. It mainly focuses on the employment of the black community that ended up to political suppression of the blacks by politicians and the white society. It also explains the aspects of industrialization and its effects on migration of population and in this case the black community. It explains the killings, lynching and segregation of the black community as a form of ethnic cleansing. It has also brought out the aspect of black political expressions that threatened the white’s politics through the gain of momentum and influence that resulted to the development of the civil rights movement and that the political expression by the black could be the reason for the violence and threats.

Efford, Alison Clark. "American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics (review)." Ohio History 117.1 (2010): 141-143. Print. This is a review Charles Lumpkins’ The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics. It reviews Charles account of the 1917 happenings involving the mass violence that was racial in nature and the blacks’ attempts to fight back and secure themselves freedom as well as human equality. It also reviews the great migrations of the black communities from the south to the north and the implications it had through attracting violence. It also highlights and distinguishes the difference between the industrial factors and the political factors that could have resulted to the outcomes and explains the one that could have the highest probability in influencing the violent outbreak. It has also reviewed the aspect of the black political organization and the influence it had on the white society.

Greenberg, C.. "American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics. By Charles L. Lumpkins. (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008. xiv, 312 pp. Cloth, $55.00, ISBN 978-0-8214-1802-4. Paper, $24.95, ISBN 978-0-8214-1803-1.)." Journal of American History 96.2 (2009): 592-593. Print. This is a review of the Charles Lumpkins’ East St. Louis race riot and black politics and emphasizes on the social injustices done on the black community that migrated to the north for better economic opportunities. It has also shed light on the effects of politics on the riots and the killings. The political organization of the black community during this time was a means to express themselves and try and stop the injustices. However, this became a threat to the white community and as a result led to heightened conflicts that resulted to the riots. This conflict was what led to the development of the civil rights movements.

Lumpkins, Charles L.. American pogrom: the East St. Louis Race Riot and Black politics. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2008. Print. This is the actual book by Charles Lumpkins and provides his direct account of the racial violence that affected the black community. It emphasizes on the development of the activism and resistance of the black community and the factors that fuelled the need to resist such as the mass killings and the destruction of property. It has also shown the influence of realtors in the escalation of violence and racial segregation as a result of employment opportunities in the north that resulted to migrations of the black community. It has also explained the author’s opinions of the violence as an organized form of ethnic cleansing of the city.

McLaughlin, Malcolm. "Reconsidering The East St Louis Race Riot Of 1917." International Review of Social History 47.02 (2002): 187-212. Print. This is an article by Malcolm McLaughlin and tries to address the political situations of St Louis Illinois that resulted to unrest and mass killings of people belonging to the black community. It discusses a period characterized by industrialization and economic growth that resulted to migrations of the black community from the south to the north for better economic benefits. However, the migration was not met positively by the white community of the north and as a result led to a lot of conflict that led to riots and killings. However, the main motive of the mass killings is highly questioned and has been linked to ethnic cleansing.

McLaughlin, Malcolm. Power, community, and racial killing in East St. Louis. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print. This is a book by Malcolm McLaughlin that has been effective in providing a good analysis of the East St. Louis riots that took place in the year 1917 and expresses the dynamics that influenced the happening such industrialization and employment opportunities. It has also been effective in the expressing the aspect of racism and the extent the white people went for racial dominance and ethnic cleansing through mass killings of the black people who had migrated to the north from the south for better economic opportunities.

Mixon, Gregory. "Review American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics Lumpkins Charles L. Ohio University Press Athens." Journal of American Ethnic History 31.3 (2012): 117-119. Print. This is an article by Gregory Mixon that has explained the effects of the increased black population during the world war one. It has also expressed the effects of political influence on the mass killings of the black people. It has also explained the political organizations of the black community and its influence on the riots as a means of empowerment and expression as well as resistance from violence and killings by the white community. It has also explained the aspect of industrial effects of the riots through employment of black people after white laborers striked.

Works Cited

Barnes, Harper. Never been a time: the 1917 race riot that sparked the civil rights movement. New York: Walker & Co. :, 2008. Print.
Capeci, Dominic J.. "American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics (review)." American Studies 50.3-4 (2009): 166-166. Print. This is an article that reviews Charles Lumpkins account of the East St. Efford, Alison Clark. "American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics (review)." Ohio History 117.1 (2010): 141-143. Print.
Greenberg, C.. "American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics. By Charles L. Lumpkins. (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008. xiv, 312 pp. Cloth, $55.00, ISBN 978-0-8214-1802-4. Paper, $24.95, ISBN 978-0-8214-1803-1.)." Journal of American History 96.2 (2009): 592-593. Print. Lumpkins, Charles L.. American pogrom: the East St. Louis Race Riot and Black politics. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2008. Print. McLaughlin, Malcolm. "Reconsidering The East St Louis Race Riot Of 1917." International Review of Social History 47.02 (2002): 187-212. Print.
McLaughlin, Malcolm. Power, community, and racial killing in East St. Louis. New York, N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. Print.
Mixon, Gregory. "Review American Pogrom: The East St. Louis Race Riot and Black Politics Lumpkins Charles L. Ohio University Press Athens." Journal of American Ethnic History 31.3 (2012): 117-119. Print.

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